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Chain of responsibility

Gang of Four Behavioral


Avoid coupling the sender of a request to its receiver by giving more than one object a chance to handle the request. Chain the receiving objects and pass the request along the chain until an object handles it.


Real-world example

The Orc King gives loud orders to his army. The closest one to react is the commander, then an officer, and then a soldier. The commander, officer, and soldier form a chain of responsibility.

In plain words

It helps to build a chain of objects. A request enters from one end and keeps going from an object to another until it finds a suitable handler.

Wikipedia says

In object-oriented design, the chain-of-responsibility pattern is a design pattern consisting of a source of command objects and a series of processing objects. Each processing object contains logic that defines the types of command objects that it can handle; the rest are passed to the next processing object in the chain.

Programmatic Example

Translating our example with the orcs from above. First, we have the Request class:

public class Request {

  private final RequestType requestType;
  private final String requestDescription;
  private boolean handled;

  public Request(final RequestType requestType, final String requestDescription) {
    this.requestType = Objects.requireNonNull(requestType);
    this.requestDescription = Objects.requireNonNull(requestDescription);

  public String getRequestDescription() { return requestDescription; }

  public RequestType getRequestType() { return requestType; }

  public void markHandled() { this.handled = true; }

  public boolean isHandled() { return this.handled; }

  public String toString() { return getRequestDescription(); }

public enum RequestType {

Next, we show the request handler hierarchy.

public abstract class RequestHandler {
  private final RequestHandler next;

  public RequestHandler(RequestHandler next) { = next;

  public void handleRequest(Request req) {
    if (next != null) {

  protected void printHandling(Request req) {"{} handling request \"{}\"", this, req);

  public abstract String toString();

public class OrcCommander extends RequestHandler {
  public OrcCommander(RequestHandler handler) {

  public void handleRequest(Request req) {
    if (req.getRequestType().equals(RequestType.DEFEND_CASTLE)) {
    } else {

  public String toString() {
    return "Orc commander";

// OrcOfficer and OrcSoldier are defined similarly as OrcCommander

The Orc King gives the orders and forms the chain.

public class OrcKing {
  RequestHandler chain;

  public OrcKing() {

  private void buildChain() {
    chain = new OrcCommander(new OrcOfficer(new OrcSoldier(null)));

  public void makeRequest(Request req) {

The chain of responsibility in action.

var king = new OrcKing();
king.makeRequest(new Request(RequestType.DEFEND_CASTLE, "defend castle"));
king.makeRequest(new Request(RequestType.TORTURE_PRISONER, "torture prisoner"));
king.makeRequest(new Request(RequestType.COLLECT_TAX, "collect tax"));

The console output.

Orc commander handling request "defend castle"
Orc officer handling request "torture prisoner"
Orc soldier handling request "collect tax"

Class diagram

alt text


Use Chain of Responsibility when

  • More than one object may handle a request, and the handler isn't known a priori. The handler should be ascertained automatically.
  • You want to issue a request to one of several objects without specifying the receiver explicitly.
  • The set of objects that can handle a request should be specified dynamically.

Known uses